Dental instruments used for dental extractions are surgical instruments such as forceps, elevator, chisels—instruments often feared by some patients. This fear is somewhat understandable if we think of the eventful history of dental extractions. However, modern instruments and techniques permit performing gentle and atraumatic tooth extractions.
Instruments for local anesthesia
- syringe with needle to inject the anesthetic;
- aspirating syringe to prevent the development of hematoma.
Dental instruments for tooth extraction
- Scalpel to make the incision. Scalpels can be blades attachable to a handle or one-piece instruments.
- Forceps come in many shapes and specific sizes. These instruments look like pliers and may feature a wide range of angles function of their specific use, in order to maximize contact with the tooth and fit the shape of the tooth as precisely as possible. For example, in a dental office you can find a different forceps for wisdom tooth extractions, for baby teeth extractions, for root extraction, for lower and upper teeth extraction, haemostatic forceps, etc. This instrument came into standard dental use relatively late (in the beginning of the 20th century); the barber-surgeons in the 18th century used a highly controversial instrument to pull out teeth: it was called a pelican due to its shape slightly resembling a bird’s beak. For a few decades after the use of the pelican, dentists have used the dental key to pull diseased teeth; the dental key was tightened over a tooth and rotated. The modern forceps is a superior alternative in terms of safe and precision as compared to its older predecessors.
- Rongeurs are surgical instruments similar to the forceps, yet sturdier. Rongeurs are often used in maxillofacial surgery for gouging out bone and remove bone fragments.
- Bone files
- Chisel and mallet are used to remove the bone. The cutting surface helps cutting, shaping and/or removing the bone. Usually, the chisel and the mallet are used together to create a window in the tooth. Surgical chisels are larger than enamel chisels used for dental fillings.
- Elevators are used as levers, to mobilize the tooth out of the gum tissues; similar instruments are used to remove root tips and broken fragments (root tip picks).
Instruments for suturing of the gingival tissue
Surgical thread suturing of the gums is only necessary for more complex tooth extraction procedures.
- Needle holders for sutures and stitches after the extraction procedure is over;
- Surgical and suture scissors used for cutting and removing surgical thread.